Short Essay On Democracy In Hindi
WHAT IS DEMOCRACY? WHY DEMOCRACY? PRESENTED BY ASHUTOSH JAISWAL
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WHAT IS DEMOCRACY? Democracy is a form of government in which people choose their rulers. But this definition do not explain democracy completely Democracy is much more complex and comprehensive form of government.
FEATURES OF 'REAL DEMOCRACY Powers in the hands of elected rulers, Fair choice and opportunity to people, Universal adult franchise, Rule of law and Citizens' Rights
FEATURES OF 'REAL DEMOCRACY POWER IN THE HANDS OF ELECTED RULERS The decision making power must be in the hands of elected rulers What happened in Pakistan? . After independence, it adopted democracy. But in 1999, General Musharraf led a military coup and overthrew the government .Later he declared himself as President of Pakistan He passed a law which gave him the power rto dismiss central and provincial governments. There was an elected government in existence but at the will of a non-elected President.
FEATURES OF 'REAL DEMOCRACY FAIR CHOICE AND OPPORTUNITY TO PEOPLE Fair options must be available to people. People must have fair opportunity to contest elections. . What happens in China? . There is only one party rule,i.e. , Communist Party of China. . There is no party which Is in opposition to the communist party as all other political parties are allies of communist party. Thus fair options are not available to the people. What happened in Mexico? There is a multi-party system Mexico but only PRI party won the elections until 2000 The PRI party is known to have indulged in cheating and dirty tricks to win elections. Other parties were not getting fair opportunity to win elections.
FEATURES OF 'REAL DEMOCRACY UNIVERSALADULT FRANCHISE It means that every person will have one vote and that vote will have one value Everyone is equal in voting and every vote is equal. What happens in Fiji? . Vote of indigenous Fiji people has more value than vote of Indian-Fiji people
FEATURES OF 'REAL DEMOCRACY RULE OF LAW AND CITIZENS' RIGHTS What happens after elections? Can the democratically elected government do anything? NO. The government must function within the limits of Constitutional laws and citizens' rights What are constitutional laws? Laws are made under the guiding principles of constitution. What is constitution? The fundamental principles according to which a country is governed. Rule of Law It means that everybody is equal before the law and no one is above it. Citizens' Rights- Basic rights that evry democratic country provides to its citizens like right to speech, right to vote, right to move freely etc.
What have we learnt? We have learnt that democracy is much more than the rulers being elected by people. We saw that the election of rulers must be based on universal adult franchise, the election should provide fair choice and opportunity to people, and the elected government should take the major decisions within the limits of the constitution
WHY DEMOCRACY? Some questions to ask? Is democracy infallible ? Or can democracy go wrong also? The decisions taken by democratic process are always right? Why majority of the countries in the world have adopted democracy and why this number is stil growing? Does democracy has some kind of magical solutions for all our problems? e Is democracy infallible?
Today, the majority of democratic countries in the world are republics, i.e. officials are elected. Some well-established democratic countries in Europe, however, (the United Kingdom, Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemburg and the Scandinavian countries) are constitutional monarchies, i.e. a king or queen is head of state while the constitution guarantees nevertheless all basic rights as in any democratic republic and sets clear limits to duties and competences of the monarch. Such a king can be regarded as a stabilizing factor rather than as a danger for a democracy. Therefore the classical definition of democracy is little helpful - at least concerning monarchy.
Democracy - Modern Definition
Because the definition of the term democracy opposite to monarchy and aristocracy rather creates confusion with regard to constitutional monarchies instead of establishing clarity, it is more appropriate to define democracy opposite to authoritarian and totalitarian regimes:
|Democracy||Form of government, where a constitution guarantees basic personal and political rights, fair and free elections, and independent courts of law.|
|Totalitarian regime||Government by a little group of leaders on the basis of an ideology, that claims general validity for all aspects of life and usually attempts to replace religion. The regime does not tolerate any deviation from its state ideology. Regime opponents are persecuted, tortured, detained in concentration camps and members of ethnic minorities are killed in mass executions (genocide).|
Historic examples of totalitarian regimes include: National Socialism (Germany under Hitler, 1933-1945) and Stalinism.
|Authoritarian regime||Government by a little group of leaders. In contrast to totalitarian regimes, authoritarian regimes have no distinct state ideology and grant some amount of freedom (e.g. economic and cultural) as long as their rule is not jeopardized. The most important goal of authoritarian regimes is the maintenance of power and the personal enrichment on cost of the country and its population.|
|Theocracy||"Government by God": in reality this means government by religious leaders. Usually a certain interpretation of ancient religious laws replaces modern forms of law and is enforced with utmost severity.|
Example: Islamic Republic of Iran.
Democracy - Key Elements
In order to deserve the label modern democracy, a country needs to fulfill some basic requirements - and they need not only be written down in it's constitution but must be kept up in everyday life by politicians and authorities:
- Guarantee of basic Human Rights to every individual person vis-à-vis the state and its authorities as well as vis-à-vis any social groups (especially religious institutions) and vis-à-vis other persons.
- Separation of Powers between the institutions of the state:
Government [Executive Power],
Parliament [Legislative Power] und
Courts of Law [Judicative Power]
- Freedom of opinion, speech, press and massmedia
- Religious liberty
- General and equal right to vote (one person, one vote)
- Good Governance (focus on public interest and absence of corruption)
Churchill on democracy
«No one pretends that democracy is perfect or all-wise. Indeed, it has been said that democracy is the worst form of government except all those other forms that have been tried from time to time»
This famous quote attributed to the former British prime minister Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965) focuses right on the weak spot of democracy:
There is no such thing as the "perfect form of government" on earth, but any other form of government produces even less desirable results than democracy. Until today, no other form of government has been invented that could regulate public affairs better than democracy.