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English Essay On Crime

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Crime and Its Causes


Abstract

The problem of crime has been a constant menace to society. From petty theft to robbery with violence, crime continues to be a migraine to the government of the day. The rise in crime rates over many states is alarming, and testament of the myriad of challenges that face society. The need to overcome the majority of these problems has led many a government into seeking solutions to a problem of which they do not know the causes. All through the United States of America, the causes of crime seem to be identical in nature. The war the government wages against crime can only be won with a deep understanding of the roots of this vice. In order to overcome crime in modern USA society, the government must have a deep understanding of the causes of crime, and the factors that lead to increased crime levels in society. This paper attempts to uncover the causes of crime and the causal linkage, if any, between these causes and the rampancy of crime.

Introduction

Crime persists as one of the challenges societies face. The constant rise in crime rates the United States over is a certain cause for alarm. This is because many neighborhoods, which are at the grassroots of crime, continue to feel the adverse effects of this problem (Darrow, 2009). Many young men and women lose their lives daily because of crime in one way or another. Many are part of the criminal gangs that control neighborhoods, and even more are victims of robbery and homicide.

It is necessary to fix this problem, and the only way to do so is to understand the causes of crime in their entire scope (Burke, Tomlinson, Cooper, 2011). This is because the only way to fix a problem as big as this one is by first understanding its causes. There is a great need to grasp the full understanding of the causes of crime in order to effectively combat this problem. In almost all the neighborhoods in which crime is a constant threat, there are a number of baseline underlying factors that are responsible for this high crime rates. The need to address these underlying factors is high as this is the only way crime can be significantly reduced all over the United States of America.


The countless efforts to solve the menace of crime in many American neighborhoods is testament of the need to understand the causes of crime. Factors such as poverty, low education levels and unemployment have been instrumental in perpetuating this problem. This is because many of the perpetrators of crime have been found to have these traits in common. Based on this, it is necessary to address these factors in a conclusive manner, to prevent further growth of these cancerous tumors that continue to eat away society. Only by addressing these factors, will society witness reduced crime rates.

It is mandatory that the causes of crime are understood, in order to reduce the rampancy of crime in the United States of America. This research is geared at understanding the causes of crime in all the neighborhoods of the United States of America (Dressler, 2002). It is aimed at getting the full understanding of these problems in order to solve the problem of crime. By determining the baseline causes of crime in American neighborhoods, efforts to curb, crime can be taken. Taking these efforts from an informed point of view is vital in guaranteeing the successful prevention of crime in America.


Literature Review

The recent drops in crime rates all over the United State of America have been met with jubilant citizens. These citizens are happy that their societies are much safer than they had been before the surveys were conducted. However, reduced crime rates do not spell absence of any crime at all, seeing that many innocent civilians continue to be the victims of heinous crimes ranging from sexual assault to robbery with violence. This is a great impediment to society since it highlights the sad reality that the underlying causes of crime have not yet been addressed.

The current condition is similar to that of a physician prescribing medicine to soothe the patient’s pain, without actually curing the disease causing the pain. The need for the underlying causes of crime in the United States of America to be addressed is very great. Many civilians suffer because of a few individuals who wield no power per se, except the power of a gun or a club at hand. There is growing concern that the government, in collaboration with its security organs, is doing very little to address the menace of crime. These forces are primarily concerned about punishing the perpetrators of crime while paying lip service to the actual causes of crime in the United States of America today. The case of Florida is a good example of the sad reality concerning crime in the American society at the moment.

Causes of Crime in Florida

The causes of crime can be defined as biological, sociological or even psychological. This is because the underlying causes of crime depend on the biological and psychological state of the individual, as well as the social circles in which the individual resides . The deadly combination of these forces is capable of churning out extremely violent, hardcore criminals out of young men and women. Among the leading causes of crime in Florida and the United States of America, is peer influence. A vast majority of the perpetrators of crime, up to 90%, are young men who have been influenced negatively by the society in which they live. Peer influence takes advantage of two main aspects to guarantee success; that is weakness and poor judgment.

The nature of many young men and women pushes them into conforming to the socially acceptable standards in the various aspects of their lives. Many of these aspects include drugs, alcohol, sex, money and even fashion. The ability of the few rotten tomatoes among the young men and women to manipulate others into crime as a means of social conformity plays a central role in the propagation of crime.

Many youths believe that getting into crime will make them popular, will make them respected and will give them the money they need to conform in terms of drugs, sex, alcohol and fashion. The psychological and emotional weaknesses present in many of these youths prevent them from refusing to conform to ‘socially acceptable standards’. The fact that many of these youths are unable to control their own wills leaves them at the mercy of the many ‘wolves’, waiting to increase the numbers of their gang members.

Poor parenting is also one of the leading causes of crime in Florida and the United States at large. The power that a good household has in shaping the characters and mentalities of growing children cannot be underestimated. All human beings have an innate desire to belong, and this desire is extended to cover the desire to belong in a family (Crutchfield, 2000). Young children are especially vulnerable to this desire, and they wish to belong to a complete family. However, the recent rising trend in single-parent households plays an essential role in the propagation of crime. In Florida, a survey conducted found out that children who have grown up in fatherless households are more likely to commit crimes than children who have grown up in normal households.

The absence of a father figure to guide and mold the characters of men in their growth process results, in children raising themselves. Many youths, particularly young men, have been fooled into believing that joining a gang and killing many innocent people, is the way to prove oneself as a man. This has been detrimental in the fight against crime, seeing that many youths grow up with false notions of manhood: notions that revolve around crime, assault and violence.

The failure of parents to control, supervise and monitor their children’s habits also plays a role in crime. A family may be complete, but failure of parents to direct their children in the right paths results, in misguided children that can be easily lured into vices such as crime and prostitution. It is necessary that parents dedicate themselves to guiding their children in the right paths.

The distinct relation between poverty and crime rates cannot go overlooked. This is because it is normal to have high crime rates in neighborhoods or regions that experience high poverty levels. Poverty forces many individuals to live below the accepted standards that a human being should live in, in society. The absence, or lack thereof, of money to cater for the needs of individuals and families forces many of these members of society into crime. It is no secret that a crime has the potential of making quick, easy money, but is also no secret that it comes at a price.

Many individuals weigh their possible success against their chances of getting caught and possible punishment, and the result is a no-brainer. Many individuals think about their families staying hungry and without the basic needs and the thought of that force many of them into crime as a means of survival. Although human beings are very different from animals, the world is not much different from a jungle, and only the fittest survive.

Many individuals have to look for a means of survival in order to guarantee that they will live to see another day (Zimring, Hawkins, 2009). The high unemployment rates do little to curtail the spread of crime among the population, seeing that many individuals do not have employment that keeps them away from crime. The correlation between high unemployment rates and crime rates is outright visible, and there is a need to provide employment to many idle youths who have the potential of venturing into crime.

The affection that many Americans have to material things goes back a long time in history. This affection is not restricted to Americans only, but to the entire global population. The desire to live in good houses, drive good cars, wear fashionable clothes and live an extravagant life has a great influence on the minds of many Americans. It is not surprising then that many young Americans rarely dream of career success, but instead, of being rich.

It is the dream of many, but very few have the opportunity to witness their dreams become reality in a legal and honest manner. The bulk of the population, which is forced to contend with settling for way less than they had hoped for, is forced to look for a way of making their dreams realities, as well (Longford, 1958). Many of these individuals engage in crime as a form of getting the money they are incapable of getting legally. The result is a crime-infested society that sees countless crimes in fraud, petty theft, and robbery with violence and even burglary. This pushes the crime rate in Florida, as well as the rest of America, a couple of notches higher than it was.

Deprived neighborhoods have some of the highest crime rates in Florida. The absence of social amenities and luxuries that other, more affluent, neighborhoods enjoy forces many youths into crime. The realization that these neighborhoods are unlikely to change into the neighborhoods they ought to be, leaves only one option for many young men and women-break out of the poverty chain and move from the neighborhood.

The fact that this is a difficult feat to achieve in the right and legal manner leaves many opting for crime (Reamer, 2005). The effect that these neighborhoods have on the crime rates is very significant. It instills within the youths, a desire to breakout of the poverty chain they live in at whatever cost. Some of these youths opt to develop their talents, especially in sports and athletics while some opt for crime.

The few who make it through the use of their talent successfully breakout of the poverty chain, but the many who fail to succeed end up frustrated and still in the poverty-ridden neighborhoods they desperately wanted to leave. Many of those who fail, end up as gangsters or mobsters in their towns and neighborhoods. The result is a big boost to the crime rates of the society in which they live.

The need to have equality in all the neighborhoods, in America, is a pressing one. It is instrumental in removing the feelings of discrimination and favoritism that many individuals in deprived neighborhoods feel. The alleviation of these feelings will play a great role in the fight against crime, seeing that individuals in these neighborhoods have one-less incentive to venture into crime as a ‘career’ than they did before these feelings are removed. This will help to reduce the crime rates in Florida and the United States of America (Burkhead, 2005).

The case in Florida is not much different from that of the United States in general. Other factors among them deprived neighborhoods, corruption, poverty and unemployment also play a key role in the propagation of crime not only in Florida, but also in America.


Hypothesis

The causes of crime in Florida are the same causes of crime in the United States of America. The states of America are all similar in their economic patterns. Although some states are richer than others, in every state there are the privileged citizens and the underprivileged citizens. The incentives to commit crime are similar in all states and so the causes of crime are the same in all the states of America.


Methodology

Research Design

The research into crime and its causes are aimed at understanding the causes of crime, not in one of the states of America, but in the whole of America. It seeks to unearth the underlying causes that push many youths into the world of crime. It seeks to look at the baseline causes of crime in all the states of America and determine if the causes are the same.

Target Population

This research was conducted to highlight the causes of crime. The primary audiences that it is targeting include the Federal government, the State government, schools and youth. These organs are the key players in the propagation of crime, and possibly the key players in curbing crime, as well. It aims to enlighten these players on their roles in propagation of crime, and suggest possible ways they can help in the fight against crime.

Variables

The variables in this study remain to be crime and the causes of crime. Crime is the dependent variable while the causes of crime are the independent variables. The nature of crimes that are committed in the United States of America is very diverse. However, the underlying causes of crime are all the same.

Sources of Data

Some of the data sources include journals, research papers, and books that highlight the causes of crime in the United States of America. Census reports from the government will also be used to highlight the population composition of crime prone areas. These reports will also identify the areas most affected by crime and the possible triggers of crime in these areas. Crime reports by security agencies such as Homeland Security and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) will be instrumental in understanding the causes of crime.

Data Collection Instruments and Procedures

Data collection for this study will depend on content analysis of the data sources used. The bulk of information that will be collected on crime rates and the causes of crime will most likely be in the form of reports; warranting the application on content analysis as the preferred method of research analysis. The causes of crime in the United States of America form the unit of analysis for this study.


Data Analysis and Interpretation

The causes of crime in the United States will be sought out following a baseline approach. The causes will first be grouped as sociological, psychological or biological. This will narrow the varying causes into three groups. These causes will then be analyzed to determine if some are sub-causes of others. This will produce the main causes of crime in the United States.

Findings

The research into the causes of crime has yielded a number of causes that have appeared in all the states of America. It is noteworthy that a majority of these causes are sociological, with very few being psychological.

Among the psychological causes of crime in the United States of America are poor judgment and psychological weakness. Many of the perpetrators of crimes are, more often than not, the handymen or women. The crime bosses do very little to soil their hands. The fact that many of these individuals give into pressures to join criminal gangs, is enough evidence of the apparent psychological weakness that many of these individuals suffer.

Their inability to stand their ground is responsible for their recruitment into crime. Many individuals that venture into crime do it as a means of survival, and rarely view their actions as crimes. Their actions are centered on their survival, and as long as they are not caught, they do not view their actions as criminal offences. This is the most common flaw that criminals share.

The sociological causes of crime are the main causes of crime. These causes can be further divided into causes within the institution of the family and causes within the society in general. The causes of crime that stem from the family include lack of love to children, generational cycles and poor parenting. The failure of parents to show their children love results in many children looking for avenues of overcoming the feelings of neglect they bear.

More often than not, the avenue is crime. In many families, crime also seems to be a ‘hereditary’ aspect of their lives. Many individuals, who have ever been convicted of or taken part in crimes, have at least one family member that has experienced the same thing. It is not possible to prove whether this is a genetically hereditary trait, however. The high rates of absentee fathers push many young men into crime. These fathers are absent either due to abandonment, neglect or serving jail terms. These factors contribute to crime by affecting the institution of the family.

The general aspects of society that are responsible for crime include corruption, media violence, deprived neighborhoods and poverty and unemployment. Corruption in government security agencies plays a primary role in criminal activity. The inability of security agencies to tackle crime effectively due to vices such as bribery and conflict of interest is a common feature in America (Tipp, Buggey, 2001). Many security officers receive bribes from criminals or have stakes in criminal activities such as drug trafficking.

This makes the fight against crime a difficult one. Many young children get their perceptions of violence from the media. From the deep affection of the American public towards crime-fighting superheroes to movies and videogames that depict violence, many youths itch to live out these fantasies. The result is a group of youth that will commit crimes as a result of the actions they witness.

Deprived neighborhoods are huge influences on the lives of many youths. The fact that the youths in these neighborhoods are incapable of accessing some basic social amenities leaves many of them frustrated. The inability of the government to provide these amenities is countered with a youth force ready to engage in crime to obtain that which the government has failed to provide. Another common feature of these neighborhoods is high unemployment and poverty rates. These only serve as incentives for the youths to commit crimes, seeing that many desperately desire to escape poverty.

Discussion

The decreased levels of crime over the past two decades are a blessing to the American society, albeit with a catch. This is because even though the crime rates in America have dropped, crime still remains a constant headache to the government and citizens alike. Many individuals continue suffering at the hands of a few individuals that have taken up crime as their ‘careers’. Insofar as punishing criminals is concerned, the government performs remarkably well.

However, addressing the underlying factors that are responsible for crime in society are waters the government is reluctant to sail. This is because the government is in charge of these issues, and admitting these problems would mean the government will be its own critic. Many of the sociological factors that are causes of crime can be dealt with squarely by the government, but stiff resistance from the government is a hurdle that still must be overcome.

The states of America are all identical when it comes to their criminal genes. Each state may have different crime rates and different age groups of criminals, but the underlying factors remain the same. The problem of child neglect is one that America continues to grapple with daily. The looming collapse of the institution of the family plays a keynote role in the perpetuation of crime in America. Many children are molded and raised up by society, rather than by their parents. In the event that the society is one rotten with countless vices, it does not take a rocket scientist to project the future of these children. The desire of parents to fulfill their dreams in their academics, careers and businesses, at the expense of their children, leaves many children to raising themselves. This is a role that any rotten society hardly passes out on taking. The lack of good role models in the family and society plays a central in encouraging crime within the youths of America.

The growing popularity of violence in society is also a leading factor in the propagation of crime in society. Many children grow up witnessing violence in their societies, and in different forms of media, to the point that it no longer surprises them. Many children now perceive violence as a part of society that they have to accept and possibly adopt. The result is a large number of innocent youths engaging in violent acts either to prove themselves as strong, or to mimic what the media fraternity has taught them to hold as true. Cases of assault continue to rise with each passing day, highlighting the precarious position society is in today.

The causes of crime in the United States of America include poverty unemployment, peer influence, psychological weaknesses, deprived neighborhoods, media violence, poor parenting, corruption and generational cycles. The sad reality remains that these problems cut across all 50 states of the USA, as a testament of the deep rooted nature of the causes of crime in America.

Conclusion

America finds herself at a very critical time in history. The causes of crime are no longer platonic, but instead have become traits that many in society today consider social norms. Crime now gets plenty of praise and is regarded as a means of survival by a significant number of youth. This highlights the danger society faces. Seeing that many of the causes of crime are deeply rooted in society, the fight against crime in the USA is now tougher than it previously was.

The society has reached a point of inflection, in which it must question its morals and social norms if the fight against crime must be won (Farrington, Welsh, 2007). The recent drops in crime rates do not count for anything; if all the government does is punish criminal offenders. Too much of anything is poison, and the government has focused on punishment for too long a time. The time has come for the government to consider a different approach to tackling crime. This new approach dictates addressing the causes of crime in the United States of America.

Recommendations

The government should consider introducing programs that teach the youth how to deal with peer pressure into the education curriculum as early as grade school.
The institution of the family must receive more attention from the government than it previously did. The government pays a lot of attention to the plight of children in the event of a divorce or death of parents. It is time that the government also pays attention to the upbringing that children in America receive.

Unemployment continues to be an impediment to the fight against crime. The government should create more jobs than it already has, to stop idle youth from engaging in criminal activity.

Equality is a central factor of American culture, seeing that it is also enshrined in the Declaration of Independence. This equality should not stop at people, and neighborhoods must also be made equal. The government should ensure that all neighborhoods in America have access to the same facilities and social amenities (Bohm, Walker, 2005).

The government should set up more stringent regulations governing the display of violence in different forms of media, among them the internet, television and videogames than the present ones. The government must address corruption in security agencies to help in the fight against crime.

References

Bohm, R. M., & Walker, J. T. (2005). Demystifying Crime and Criminal Justice. Oxford: Oxford Univ Press.
Burke, R. J., Tomlinson, E. C., & Cooper, C. L. (2011). Crime and corruption in organizations: Why it occurs and what to do about it. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate.
Burkhead, M. D. (2005). The search for the causes of crime: A history of theory in criminology. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co.
Crutchfield, R. D. (2000). Crime. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Pine Forge Press.
Darrow, C. (2009). Crime: Its cause and treatment. New York: Kaplan.
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Dressler, J. (2002). Encyclopedia of crime & justice: 2. New York: Macmillan Reference USA.
Farrington, D. P., & Welsh, B. (2007). Saving children from a life of crime: Early risk factors and effective interventions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Law.jrank.org (2013). Causes of Crime - Explaining Crime, Physical Abnormalities, Psychological Disorders, Social And Economic Factors, Broken Windows, Income And Education.
Longford, F. P. (1958). Causes of crime. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Reamer, F. G. (2005). Heinous crime: Cases, causes, and consequences. New York: Columbia University Press.
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Sellin, T., & Busey, P. R. (1942). Crime: The causes and extent of criminal behavior, its prevention and treatment. Washington, D.C: National council for the social studies, National Association of secondary-school principals, departments of the National education Association.
Thesocietypages.org (2013). Six Social Sources of the U.S. Crime Drop » The Society Pages.
Tipp, S. L., & Buggey, J. A. (1991). Causes of crime: Distinguishing between fact and opinion. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press.
Weatherburn, D. J., & New South Wales. (2001). What causes crime?. Sydney: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research.
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Crime is any action or offence that defies a state or country and is punishable by law. Crime has many definitions. In fact the most common thing about these definitions is that crime is punishable. Crime cuts across many disciplines such as sociology, psychology and criminology. Each of these disciplines try to explain why crime is committed and how people are compelled to commit crime, a good example is sociology. Sociology attributes crime due to poor socialization in society, while psychology attributes crime mainly due to biological and Pathological criminogenic behaviors. Many scholars have tried to define crime and each has given many reasons why crime is committed. Scholars such Cesare Lombroso attribute crime to biological anomalies while scholars like Edwin Sutherland claim that criminal behavior is learned. Generally all these come, to the same conclusions that crime is an offence punishable by law. There are two main types of crime, these include violent crimes and property crime. Violent crime constitutes when someone decides to harm, threaten and conspire against someone else while property crime constitute someone who damages, destroys or steals someone’s property. Both violent and property crimes are offences which involve force and damage to society. There are different types of punishing crime, the most common typologies are retribution, restorative justice, general and specific deterrence, rehabilitation and just deserts. Crime punishment has been there since the beginning of time, theoldesttype of punishment was retribution. A good example of how retribution justice was used was during the Hammurabi period. In those days if crime was committed it constituted an eye for an eye. If I killed someone my punishment would be death. No one was spared. Justice was viewed differently. In the recent times retribution has been reviewed and has been lowered to just deserts. The punishment is still harsh but considers many factors at hand, such as the state of mindof the offender. Crime has been there for a long time and has been defined and been punished in different ways. What constitutes a crime has also been reviewed .what was viewed a crime in the previous times is not a crime now. A good example is freedom of worship. Many people were not allowed to worship any other gods and did it secrecy due to fear of prosecution and being labeled a heretic. In present times one is allowed to worship any god and believe in whoever they please. Generallycrime is a wide topic and has been vigorously studied in different aspects butin this essay I am going to focus mainly on the major objectives of crime prevention, typologies of crime reduction, law enforcement and crime, recidivism of crime and interventions on reduction of crime.
2.0 OBJECTIVES OF CRIME PREVENTIONAND CRIME REDUCTION
Crime prevention includes reducing and deterring crime and criminals from committing crimes. Crime reduction is quite similar to crime prevention, for crime reduction to occur we need to prevent it at first. Crime prevention strategies are usually implemented by criminal justice agencies, individuals, businesses and non-governmental agencies in order to maintain order and enforce the law. Crime prevention strategies not only deter crime but also reduce the risk of increasing victimization in the society.Crime prevention has many objectives but the most main objective is to reduce and deter crime. Many criminal justice agencies have developed strategies through public policy in order to prevent crime. Various models have been adopted by countries in order to combat crime. Kenya for example has enforced the Nyumbakumi initiative (community policing) spear headed by Kaguthi in order to combat crime. By this strategy neighbors are supposed to be readily aw e and watchful of what happens in the neighborhood in order to deter criminals from committing crimes. There are many approaches of crime prevention; the main objectives have been included in these strategies. These strategies are situational crime prevention strategy, environmental crime prevention, social crime prevention, developmental crime prevention, policing strategies, and community crime prevention strategies.
The environmental prevention strategy was first introduced by C. Ray Jeffery a criminologist. Environmental crime prevention strategy main objective is to protect the environment which entails wildlife, Nature and the atmosphere. Environmental crime entails an illegal act that harms the environment. Many international bodies such as Interpol and the UN have recognized environmental crime due to the havoc it has causedthe environment, Types of environmental crime may include dumping hazardous waste in the ocean, illegal wild life trade of endangered species, smuggling, emitting chemicals those ozone layer and illegal logging of trees. There many crimes associated with environmental crime but I am going to focus on the two main which affect many countries which is illegal trade of wildlife and logging of tress.
Many counties have been trying to fight this crime. Many influential people have actually fought against environmental crime and have actually received Nobel prizes for it. The late Wangari Maathai who was an activist for the environment was highly against illegal logging of trees. In fact she proposed that for every tree that was cut down, three should beplanted. Prevention strategies have been implemented in order to combat crime. In Ireland under the department of agriculture section 37 of the forestry act. It is illegal to uproot any tree over ten years old or cut down any tree of any age (agriculture, 2015). Illegal wildlife trade is also a major problem. Kenya has had this problem for years, being one of the countries that harbors endangered species such as the white rhino and elephants. It has faced a lot of problems in trying to combat this problem. Many poachers are killing these animals and selling the tusks of these animals for high prices. Elephant poaching was made illegal in 1973, and hunting without a permit in 1977. Kenya has roughened sentencing through increasing fines.Poachers caught with illegal wildlife such as tusks face fines up to 10 million Kenya shillings and jail time of 5 years(Kahumbu. 2013).Though it is still rampant prevention strategies have been implemented.
Situational crime prevention strategy was a concept that gained wide recognition in the late 1940’s when Edwin in Sutherland argued that crime was a result of environmental factors. Hebelieved that crime was learned. Situational crime prevention strategy is deeply rooted in theories such as routine activity theory, crime pattern theory and rational choice theory. Situational crime prevention strategy focuses on mainly reducing crime by providing settings in which it is less conducive for criminals to attack. Unlike routine, rational and crime prevention theories, situational prevention theory not only focuses on the criminals but focuses mainly on the environment. A good example of how criminal justice agencies have applied this strategy is by ensuring that their heavy surveillance in the cities in order to deter criminals from committing crimes. In Kenya the Government has installed cameras on the traffic lights in order to record criminal activity and find corrupt road traffic users (Okere, 2012). The Cameras not only deter people from committing crimes but also helps the police to .find culprits who may commit a crime and get away with it. A study done in Nairobi by Stephen Okere found out that 85.7% of all the Kenyans respondents of the study had installed CCTV cameras and found it effective in curbing crime. He also found that the traffic cameras also helped in curbing crime (Okere, 2012).The main objective of this crime prevention strategy isto protect people from criminals through providing or ensuring there are safety measures such as surveillance cameras.
Social crime prevention is a strategy that addresses the direct root causes of crime. The main objective of social crime prevention is on the social elements that have lead people to commit this crimes, these elements may include breakdown in familyvalues and ignorance. Lack of cohesion and environmental conditions. Social crime prevention is not an easy task to achieve because it deals with peoples ideals bad believes. The only way to create a society that is peaceful is to start from the beginning. This means ensuring that schooling from young age is given much importance. A good example of how governments have done this is by ensuring that the curriculum in nursery schools teaches children values of what wrong and what is right. There are many ways of how social crime prevention can be achieved, through changing values at home through public education and encouraging the community to be the agent of social change in their own communities.
Developmental crime prevention focuses on how crime occurs; the mainobjective of this strategy is show how crime develops and causes victimization in society. Developmental crime prevention strategy is used by many countries. Public education is one of the approaches that have been used. By using public education many people are taught and developed in to young abiding citizens rather than criminals. Communities may also focus on helping teachers to be an integral part in developing self-control in young people. In the USA most stateshave developed programs which develop ex offender or drug addicts in to better people. They engage in social programs and help them achieve GEDS in order to get a better life. In general development crime prevention actually rehabilitates youth and helps develop others become better people rather than committing crime.
Policing strategies are also crucial in crime prevention. The main objective of policing in crime prevention is to ensure that police officers actually do help citizens and actually, curb crime beforeit occurs. Policing should be proactive. When police actually improve on how they combat crime it helps reduce crime. Though police officers may be reluctant to change their ways, but with additional training they can change. In order to reduce crime policing should be an important aspect. Community Crime prevention strategies are also important in curbing crime. The main objective of this strategy is to ensure that the community and police actually work together in order to prevent crime. By the community being involved in everything it helps reduce crime. Most countries have actually adopted this model. Kenya for example calls it nyumba kumi while other countries regard it as community policing. By the community and the police being involved it helps curb crime because the police are not working alone but are working hand in hand to ensure safety. Community crime prevention strategy can be very effective if the relationship between the citizen and the police is cordial. If it is not, this approach can be very hard to achieve.
By societies using all these models of crime prevention, reduction of crime actually occurs. Crime reduction cannot occur if the government and criminal justice agencies are not doing anything about it. If you look at countries that have high crime, the criminal justice agency and government are weak, and corruption is common. Such countries are run by cartels who engage in organized crime. Organized crime also tends to be present in countries that have strong criminal justice systems, but the difference between the two is that they are not strong as they are in failed states or weak countries. Guinea-Bissau for example which faces a lot corruption has made it easier for organized crime flourish. In April 2007 the authorizes of Guinea-Bissau managed to seize 635 kilograms of cocaine , unfortunately the drug traffickers managed to escape with 2.5 tons of drugs because the police could not catch up with them (Mutume, 2007). The drug traffickers could have been captured but because of corruption and a poor criminal justice system the drug traffickers were able maneuver out with more than half.

Crime prevention and limitations
Crime analysis is understood as the systematic study of crime and disorder problems as well as other police-related issues (Santos). It is important to include sociodemographic, spatial, and mundane factors to assist in criminal apprehension, crime reduction, and crime prevention. It is used primarily as information so that personnel, from patrol officers to police chiefs, have an idea of when and where crime is occurring and how much it has overall occurred. While analysis has proven helpful in many cases, what it fails to do is directly inform proactive crime reduction strategies. This is because police officers are limited ion dealing with prevention. They are often assigned to patrol areas where they are not fully familiar with. They may not fully understand the social structure and norms that fuel the neighborhood and the actions of its residents.
While crime analysis was once focused primarily on tactical issues of identifying offenders, discrimination and stereotyping led to social unrest and led to other tactics of crime prevention. With the stop and frisk campaign in new York, where the police had the right to stop an individual and frisk them for any sort of weapons, drugs or paraphernalia, it became apparent hat innocent young blacks were not being targeted, but were having their rights infringed upon. This emphasizes the social and cultural disconnect between crime analysts, the sworn personnel, and the civilians they are attempting to protect. These became a blurred line between the officers’ role of protecting and harassing innocent civilians. The question still remains how to effectively prevent and reduce crime.
Crime analysis and crime mapping are becoming more common, but they are primarily implemented in larger police agencies. Areas that have statistically needed more protection have been given more policing depending on the capacity of the police in the district. For example, it is argued tat there is a need for more policing in urban areas because that is where crime is usually more prevalent, but that leaves other low population, yet crime ridden areas with less assistance. Despite this all, policing is occasionally being shifted to focus more on ‘hot spots,’ areas where crime is more prevalent. The close monitoring has o an extent been able to deter crime, but that again depends on the stance of the offender and what they have to lose from their potential criminal transaction.
Do they work?
While in an ideal world all crime prevention efforts would work, that is not the case in the society that we live in today. Crime and its prevention vary depending on the environment of where the crime is happening. The demographics, the socioeconomic status of the people, and the relationships within the community all factor into crime and its prevention. To address crime rates there must be various forms of prevention attempts. From the research conducted, it is evident that incarceration is limited in its effectiveness of crime prevention and reduction. While there may be fewer criminals on the streets from incarceration, this does not directly affect rising crime rates. Given that about two thirds of criminals in the U.S. return to prison, incarceration only proves to be a temporary fix. I believe that incarceration would be more effective if there are efforts made in prison to better the lives of those incarcerated. Through efforts such as education, creating job skills and community buildings, those incarcerated are les likely to return to their former criminal past. This has the ability to create crime prevention and reduction in the long run. I also believe that random patrol and reactive arrests used responses to a community’s demand are generally effective, policing in areas where crime is more prevalent makes it easier to identify problems within a community. It develops tailored responses in a timely manner so that crime can be controlled, reduced, and prevented.
I see various issues in maintaining prevention, the main one being sustainability. Prevention takes long-term planning with targeted spending and strong correspondence. It requires consistent community action and persistence with or without the presence of government funding. Without flexibility crime cannot be prevented or reduced. Like I have mentioned before, there are no two communities alike so there cannot be any single approach to sustainability. It is up to the individual communities and organizations to determine appropriate strategies and implement them. I agree with the World Health Organization and the understanding that creating and implementing and monitoring a national action plan for violence prevention would be effective. In order to do so, the issues of funding must be addressed. I believe that the federal and local government should invent in testing method of policing in order to raise awareness and reduce crime. To keep time rates low, there is a need to enhance the capacity of data collection on violence. That way, the issues that need to be addressed are apparent. When looking at issues and crimes within a community, it is important to examine the causes. Consequences and costs for prevention as well as reduction.
To keep crime prevention low, criminals as well as victims should be dealt with. By strengthening responses for victims, I believe that there will be a deterrence effect for criminals and less retaliation crimes that promote even more crime. I also believe that integrating crime prevention into social and educational policies has the ability to reduce crime by promoting social equality.

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