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Conclusion On Noise Pollution Essay

Noise pollution, also known as environmental noise, is the propagation of noise with harmful impact on the activity of human or animal life. The source of outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by machines, transport and transportation systems.[1][2] Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential areas. Research suggests that noise pollution is the highest in low-income and racial minority neighborhoods.[3] Documented problems associated with urban environment noise go back as far as ancient Rome.[4]

High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects in humans and an increased incidence of coronary artery disease.[5] In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering predator or prey detection and avoidance, interfere with reproduction and navigation, and contribute to permanent hearing loss.[6]

Health[edit]

Humans[edit]

Main article: Health effects from noise

Noise pollution affects both health and behavior. Unwanted sound (noise) can damage psychological and physiological health. Noise pollution can cause hypertension, high stress levels, tinnitus, hearing loss, sleep disturbances, and other harmful effects.[7][8][9][10]

Sound becomes unwanted when it either interferes with normal activities such as sleep or conversation, or disrupts or diminishes one's quality of life.[11]Noise-induced hearing loss can be caused by outside (e.g. trains) or inside (e.g. music) noise.

Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss. Older males exposed to significant occupational noise demonstrate more significantly reduced hearing sensitivity than their non-exposed peers, though differences in hearing sensitivity decrease with time and the two groups are indistinguishable by age 79.[12] A comparison of Maaban tribesmen, who were insignificantly exposed to transportation or industrial noise, to a typical U.S. population showed that chronic exposure to moderately high levels of environmental noise contributes to hearing loss.[7]

High noise levels can result in cardiovascular effects and exposure to moderately high levels during a single eight-hour period causes a statistical rise in blood pressure of five to ten points and an increase in stress,[7] and vasoconstriction leading to the increased blood pressure noted above, as well as to increased incidence of coronary artery disease.

Less addressed is how humans adapt to noise subjectively. Indeed, tolerance for noise is frequently independent of decibel levels. However, Murray Schafer's soundscape research was groundbreaking in this regard. In his eponymous work, he makes compelling arguments about how humans relate to noise on a subjective level, and how such subjectivity is conditioned by culture.[13] He also notes that sound is an expression of power, and as such, material culture (e.g., fast cars or Harley Davidson motorcycles with aftermarket pipes) tend to have louder engines not only for safety reasons, but for expressions of power by dominating the soundscape with a particular sound. Other key research in this area can be seen in Fong's comparative analysis of soundscape differences between Bangkok, Thailand and Los Angeles, California, US. Fong's research methodology was modeled after Schafer, and the research findings show how not only do soundscapes differ, but they also rather explicitly point to the level of urban development in the area; that is, cities in the periphery – in Immanuel Wallerstein-speak – will have different soundscapes than that of cities in the core. Fong's important findings tie not only soundscape appreciation to our subjective views of sound, but also demonstrates how different sounds of the soundscape are indicative of class differences in urban environments.[14]

Wildlife[edit]

Noise can have a detrimental effect on wild animals, increasing the risk of death by changing the delicate balance in predator or prey detection and avoidance, and interfering the use of the sounds in communication, especially in relation to reproduction and in navigation. Acoustic overexposure can lead to temporary or permanent loss of hearing.

An impact of noise on wild animal life is the reduction of usable habitat that noisy areas may cause, which in the case of endangered species may be part of the path to extinction. Noise pollution may have caused the death of certain species of whales that beached themselves after being exposed to the loud sound of military sonar.[15] (see also Marine mammals and sonar)

Noise also makes species communicate more loudly, which is called Lombard vocal response.[16] Scientists and researchers have conducted experiments that show whales' song length is longer when submarine-detectors are on.[17] If creatures do not "speak" loudly enough, their voice will be masked by anthropogenic sounds. These unheard voices might be warnings, finding of prey, or preparations of net-bubbling. When one species begins speaking more loudly, it will mask other species' voice, causing the whole ecosystem eventually to speak more loudly.

Marine invertebrates, such as crabs (Carcinus maenas), have also been shown to be negatively affected by ship noise.[18][19] Larger crabs were noted to be negatively affected more by the sounds than smaller crabs. Repeated exposure to the sounds did lead to acclimatization.[19]

European robins living in urban environments are more likely to sing at night in places with high levels of noise pollution during the day, suggesting that they sing at night because it is quieter, and their message can propagate through the environment more clearly.[20] The same study showed that daytime noise was a stronger predictor of nocturnal singing than night-time light pollution, to which the phenomenon often is attributed. Anthropogenic noise reduced the species richness of birds found in Neoptropical urban parks.[21]

Zebra finches become less faithful to their partners when exposed to traffic noise. This could alter a population's evolutionary trajectory by selecting traits, sapping resources normally devoted to other activities and thus leading to profound genetic and evolutionary consequences.[22]

Noise control[edit]

Main article: Noise control

Noise from roadways and other urban factors can be mitigated by urban planning and better design of roads. Roadway noise can be reduced by the use of noise barriers, limitation of vehicle speeds, alteration of roadway surface texture, limitation of heavy vehicles, use of traffic controls that smooth vehicle flow to reduce braking and acceleration, and tire design. An important factor in applying these strategies is a computer model for roadway noise, that is capable of addressing local topography, meteorology, traffic operations, and hypothetical mitigation. Costs of building-in mitigation can be modest, provided these solutions are sought in the planning stage of a roadway project.

Aircraft noise can be reduced by using quieter jet engines. Altering flight paths and time of day runway has benefitted residents near airports.

Industrial noise has been addressed since the 1930s via redesign of industrial equipment, shock mounted assemblies and physical barriers in the workplace. In recent years, Buy Quiet programs and initiatives have arisen in an effort to combat occupational noise exposures. These programs promote the purchase of quieter tools and equipment and encourage manufacturers to design quieter equipment.[23] The US National Institute for Occupational Health has created a database of industrial equipment with decibel levels noted.[24]

Legal status[edit]

Main article: Noise regulation

Up until the 1970s governments tended to view noise as a "nuisance" rather than an environmental problem.

Many conflicts over noise pollution are handled by negotiation between the emitter and the receiver. Escalation procedures vary by country, and may include action in conjunction with local authorities, in particular the police.

India[edit]

Noise pollution is a major problem in India.[25] The government of India has rules & regulations against firecrackers and loudspeakers, but enforcement is extremely lax.[26]Awaaz Foundation is an Indian NGO working to control noise pollution from various sources through advocacy, public interest litigation, awareness, and educational campaigns since 2003.[27] Despite increased enforcement and stringency of laws now being practised in urban areas, rural areas are still affected.

United Kingdom[edit]

Figures compiled by rockwool, the mineral woolinsulation manufacturer, based on responses from local authorities to a Freedom of Information Act (FOI) request reveal in the period April 2008 – 2009 UK councils received 315,838 complaints about noise pollution from private residences. This resulted in environmental health officers across the UK serving 8,069 noise abatement notices or citations under the terms of the Anti-Social Behaviour (Scotland) Act. In the last 12 months, 524 confiscations of equipment have been authorized involving the removal of powerful speakers, stereos and televisions. Westminster City Council has received more complaints per head of population than any other district in the UK with 9,814 grievances about noise, which equates to 42.32 complaints per thousand residents. Eight of the top 10 councils ranked by complaints per 1,000 residents are located in London.[28]

United States[edit]

There are federal standards for highway and aircraft noise; states and local governments typically have very specific statutes on building codes, urban planning, and roadway development.

Noise laws and ordinances vary widely among municipalities and indeed do not even exist in some cities. An ordinance may contain a general prohibition against making noise that is a nuisance, or it may set out specific guidelines for the level of noise allowable at certain times of the day and for certain activities.

The Environmental Protection Agency retains authority to investigate and study noise and its effect, disseminate information to the public regarding noise pollution and its adverse health effects, respond to inquiries on matters related to noise, and evaluate the effectiveness of existing regulations for protecting the public health and welfare, pursuant to the Noise Control Act of 1972 and the Quiet Communities Act of 1978.[29]

New York City instituted the first comprehensive noise code in 1985. The Portland Noise Code includes potential fines of up to $5000 per infraction and is the basis for other major U.S. and Canadian city noise ordinances.[30]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Senate Public Works Committee, Noise Pollution and Abatement Act of 1972, S. Rep. No. 1160, 92nd Cong. 2nd session
  2. ^C. Michael Hogan and Gary L. Latshaw, "The relationship between highway planning and urban noise", The Proceedings of the ASCE, Urban Transportation, May 21–23, 1973, Chicago, Illinois. By American Society of Civil Engineers. Urban Transportation Division
  3. ^Casey, Joan A; James, Peter; Morello-Forsch, Rachel. "Urban noise pollution is worst in poor and minority neighborhoods and segregated cities". PBS. Published October 7, 2017. Retrieved January 1, 2018.
  4. ^"Medscape Log In". 
  5. ^Hoffmann, Barbara; Moebus, Susanne; Stang, Andreas; Beck, Eva-Maria; Dragano, Nico; Möhlenkamp, Stephan; Schmermund, Axel; Memmesheimer, Michael; Mann, Klaus (2006-11-01). "Residence close to high traffic and prevalence of coronary heart disease". European Heart Journal. 27 (22): 2696–2702. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehl278. ISSN 0195-668X. PMID 17003049. 
  6. ^"Results and Discussion – Effects – Noise Effect On Wildlife – Noise – Environment – FHWA". www.fhwa.dot.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-21. 
  7. ^ abcS. Rosen and P. Olin, Hearing Loss and Coronary Heart Disease, Archives of Otolaryngology, 82:236 (1965)
  8. ^J.M. Field, Effect of personal and situational variables upon noise annoyance in residential areas, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 93: 2753–2763 (1993)
  9. ^"Noise Pollution". World Health Organisation. 
  10. ^"Road noise link to blood pressure". BBC News. 2009-09-10. Retrieved 2010-05-20. 
  11. ^Jefferson, Catrice. "Noise Pollution". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 2013-09-24. 
  12. ^Rosenhall U, Pedersen K, Svanborg A (1990). "Presbycusis and noise-induced hearing loss". Ear Hear. 11 (4): 257–63. doi:10.1097/00003446-199008000-00002. PMID 2210099. 
  13. ^Schafer, Murray (1977). The Soundscape. Destiny Books. 
  14. ^Fong, Jack (2014). "Making Operative Concepts from Murray Schafer's Soundscapes Typology: A Qualitative and Comparative Analysis of Noise Pollution in Bangkok, Thailand and Los Angeles, California". Urban Studies. 53 (1): 173–192. doi:10.1177/0042098014562333. 
  15. ^Bahamas Marine Mammal Stranding Event of 15–16 March 2000
  16. ^[NULL]. "DOSITS: Page Not Found". Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  17. ^"Variation in humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song length in relation to". Bibcode:2003ASAJ..113.3411F. Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  18. ^McClain, Craig. "Loud Noise Makes Crabs Even More Crabby". Deep Sea News. Retrieved 2013-04-04. 
  19. ^ abWale, M. A.; Simpson, S. D.; Radford, A. N. (2013). "Size-dependent physiological responses of shore crabs to single and repeated playback of ship noise". Biology Letters. 9 (2): 20121194–20121194. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2012.1194. ISSN 1744-9561. PMC 3639773. PMID 23445945. 
  20. ^Fuller RA, Warren PH, Gaston KJ (2007). "Daytime noise predicts nocturnal singing in urban robins". Biology Letters. 3 (4): 368–70. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0134. PMC 2390663. PMID 17456449. 
  21. ^Perillo, A.; Mazzoni, L. G.; Passos, L. F.; Goulart, V. D. L. R.; Duca, C.; Young, R. J. (2017). "Anthropogenic noise reduces bird species richness and diversity in urban parks". Ibis. 159 (3): 638–646. doi:10.1111/ibi.12481. 
  22. ^Milius, S. (2007). High Volume, Low Fidelity: Birds are less faithful as sounds blare, Science News vol. 172, p. 116. (references)
  23. ^"CDC – Buy Quiet – NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topics". Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  24. ^"CDC – Buy Quiet: Efforts – NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topics". Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  25. ^IANS (29 August 2016). "Freedom from noise pollution will be true independence (Comment: Special to IANS)" – via Business Standard. 
  26. ^"Central Pollution Control Board: FAQs". Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  27. ^Rising festival noise undoing past efforts'
  28. ^"London is home to the noisiest neighbours". London Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 2013-01-14. 
  29. ^EPA. "Noise pollution". Environmental protection agency. Retrieved 2013-10-28. 
  30. ^City of Portland, Oregon. Auditor's Office. Chapter 18.02 Title Noise Control. Retrieved on April 20, 2009.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Traffic is the main source of noise pollution in cities.
A man wears ear defenders for protection against noise pollution, 1973.

 

Noise Pollution

Meaning

Noise Pollution is one type of the volume which makes diseases into the environment and it very harmful for the people who are breathing and living on this earth. Noise Pollution involves the Vehicle horns, Industrial volume, and loudspeaker music. Noise Pollution is very discomfort and injurious for the physical and mental health and irritating and annoying to the living beings.

“Keep the noise down otherwise noise will keep your hearing down.”

Causes of Noise Pollution

  • In India have most of the festivals which all they are celebrating in a different style but in some of the festivals like Diwali, It is a great festival, but people are using firecrackers for exploding and making a noise and also the air polluting.
  • As we all know in the Hinduism marriage, the people are making a sound by playing on the loudspeaker music, but they are careless for the noise pollution how mush its spreading in the environment.
  • In the traffic of India, so many people are making noise, and it is severest in the cities. There is a different mode of transportation for example Buses, Trains, Airplanes, and trams, etc. which is making noise cause it is very painful for us and disturbs to the mind but they do not understand how to solve that problem if one makes noise than people will follow it like a chain.
  • In the industrial area have a significant number of factories in the major cities if we go then we get the noise pollution along with that air pollution and polluting to the environment and also disturbing the nearby residential area.
  • There have the most of the social events and the festive occasions, but people are using the loudspeaker very loudly and making noise and disturbing to other people.
  • There are the uses of mobile phones during the social and political events which are unrestricted.
  • In the home people also generating noise by the using large number of appliances like Mixer grinder juicer.
  • Television also causes of the noise pollution because it may effect to the physically like it can harm to our Eye and ear by the watching for the long hour.
  • When any construction site is working in progress than his activity can damage to us by using of such sound producing equipment, Cranes, Cement mixer and road roller, etc.

Effects of Noise Pollution

  • Over a period we are the effect of the noise pollution, and it can easily result in damaged to our ear drums and loss of hearing. Which may impair the hearing for always and it also reduces our sensitivity to sounds so that our ears pick up unconsciously to regulate our body’s rhythm.
  • There are many types of diseases and stress related to a heart which can harm it because of the Blood pressure levels, cardiovascular diseases, and high noises can cause to the high blood pressure and increases heart beat rate as it cause the normal blood flow.
  • Loud Noise can effect on the people sleeping pattern it generating the irritation and uncomfortable situations, so that is the reason for individuals who are not getting a good night sleep and not getting a proper rest and it can lose the performance of individuals at the office and the home.
  • Noise pollution is causing on the health of the people, and nowadays the people are suffering from stress and anxiety and also psychological health. It shows its effects like disturbance of sleep, Constant stress, fatigue and hypertension can link to excessive noise levels.
  • Trouble communicating generated when two people are talking freely and noise are disturbing to them so people will not understand the other person communication then it can become a headache for the people.
  • Marine scientists are concerned about excessive noise used by oil drills, submarines and other vessels on and inside the ocean. Many marine animals, especially whales, use hearing to find food, communicate, defend and survive in the sea. Excessive noises are causing a lot of injuries and deaths to whales. For example, the effect of a Navy submarine’s sonar can felt 300 miles away from the source.
  • Wildlife faces far more problems than humans because noise pollution since they are more dependent on sound. Animals develop a better sense of hearing than us since their survival depends on it. The ill effects of excessive noise begin at home. Pets react more aggressively in households where there is the constant noise.
  • As is controlling the sound levels in clubs, bars, parties, and discos. Better urban planning can help in creating ‘No-Noise’ zones, where honk and industrial noise are not tolerated. It is only when our understanding noise pollution is complete, can we take steps to eradicate it completely.

Solutions of Noise Pollution

  • Public awareness is essential for prevent and control the noise pollution. Not only the government but we should also be aware of the harmful consequences of noise pollution.
  • Which cause to the certain deafness people should aware of that excessive noise
  • Such transport terminals, Industries, Airport, and railway terminals sight should be far from living spaces.
  • Avoid the maximum uses of sound processing instruments and make proper regulations for the utilize of a loudspeaker and other devices.
  • Construction of some soundproof machines in industrial and manufacturing installation must be encouraged. Also necessary for residential building.
  • Anti-pollution laws should make strict rules and regulation which enacted and forced.
  • Ban all type of fire crackers which is very harmful for pollution and replace with the bulb horns.
  • In the law of community must have a real and silence zone like Schools, Colleges, and Hospitals.
  • Make in the residential area the plantation (Trees) it absorbs the sound and reduces the pollution and also healthier for breathing of body.

Conclusion

We can reduce Noise pollution by using all solutions and make a healthy and happier India. If we all reduce the pollution and make the plantation everywhere, then people breathe healthy on this planet.

Noise Pollution have present some exclusive video

 

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